Just 40 kilometres from Cape Town, the Kogelberg Biosphere Reserve is South Africa’s oldest biosphere reserve, and was first designated in 1998. The majority of its 103,629 hectares is comprised of mountainous landscapes including high peals and deep valleys, but also includes coastal plains and 1,629 hectares of marine area. On the south-western coast of South Africa, the Cape West Coast Biosphere Reserve includes ecosystems such as coastal plains and marine areas and diverse, fynbos-rich areas as well as wetlands, such as the Langebaan Lagoon which is a Ramsar site. The Kruger to Canyons Biosphere Reserve includes in its expansive 2,608,000 hectares parts of the Kruger National Park through to the Blyde River Canyon Nature Reserve. This vast area encompasses three of South Africa’s biomes (savannah, grassland and forest) and is characterised by the Transvaal Drakensberg Escarpment.