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Creating a Climate of “Negative Peace” in Mozambique

Independence wars in Africa were in many instances followed by civil conflict. This was the case in Angola, South Sudan, the Democratic Republic of Conglo and Zimbabwe. In others, the quality of the peace implemented has been low. Mozambique is not an exception but presents some interesting peculiarities. Its process of pacification – after 16 years of civil war between the governing Frelimo and the Renamo rebel movement – has long been considered a good example of how to mediate in African conflicts. But, as the facts show, this is not the case. Following international mediation, the Frelimo government and Renamo signed the Mozambican General Peace Agreement in 1992 in Rome, hosted by the Italian government and other international mediators. Peace processes in Mozambique have failed to create conditions that prevent the resumption of war. Hence the country remains in a state of war – in the centre of the country because of military activity by Renamo, and in the North, by radical Islamist insurgents, starting in 2017.