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Africa and the Circular Economy 

Greenpeace says out of 54 African countries, 34 have either passed a law outlawing plastics with implementation or passed a law with the intention of implementation. Of those, 16 have totally banned carrier bags or have done so partly, without yet introducing regulations to enforce the restrictions. The East African state Eritrea was the first to embrace an outright sanction on plastic bags in 2005. The outstanding achievers though are Kenya and Rwanda. Importing, manufacturing or selling single-use plastic bags could earn companies a fine of $40,000, while using one could see individuals fined a whopping $500 in Kenya. In Rwanda, a national ban in 2008 on non-biodegradable plastic bags was instituted, prohibiting the making, use, import and sale of bags. To speed up the adoption of a circular economy mindset, and establish what has worked in the past, the Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa (IWMSA) is hosting WasteCon 2022 in October.